In recent years, several new and advanced anti-cancer drugs have been developed and made available to patients with significant benefits in the treatment of various types of cancer. One such drug is immunotherapy, which includes checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and atecolizumab. They activate the body’s immune system, allowing it to fight cancer cells more effectively. The benefits of immunotherapy lie in its ability to achieve long-term tumor control and induce long-lasting responses in some patients. However, the effectiveness of immunotherapy may vary depending on the type of cancer and the individual patient. Possible side effects include immune responses as well as effects on healthy tissue. Another significant drug is molecular targeted therapy, which targets specific molecular changes in cancer cells. For example, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib represent significant efficacy in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. These drugs can precisely target specific targets, which reduces side effects compared to more general chemotherapy treatments. However, their effectiveness may be limited by mutations and the development of drug resistance in some patients. New anticancer drugs play an important role in improving the prognosis of survival and quality of life of patients, especially in cases where more traditional methods of treatment have not given the desired effect.